Logical Reasoning

Late in the 16th century, Aristotle, a famous philosopher designed a technique of logical reasoning named syllogism. It is also called logical appeal for deriving conclusions from factual statements.

Why Syllogism is important?

It is addressed as “so called technique”, because in the 18th century Immanuel Kant said that logic is a science and theories proposed by Aristotle have no relation with logic. While in the 17th century, this technique was already facing criticism. Sir Francis Bacon considered this technique of calculation absolutely illogical. By now, syllogism is modified and has become an important prospect in varied types of aptitude examinations.

Since the beginning, this analytical tool was based on deductive reasoning. Such techniques focus on deriving conclusions from factual terms. It comprises of three terms; minor premises, major premises and conclusion. Syllogism is also called categorical proposition and has a concrete structure. Major premises consist of factual statement; minor premises include specific statement whereas conclusion is the derivation of major and minor premises.

This analytical tool comprises of various types. Some of them are mentioned below along with their examples. Hypothetical proposition is a form in which statements are based on suppositions and conclusions are derived from hypothetical terms. For instance, if X equal to Y and Y= Z then X=Z. This proposition is a conditional statement so one must pay concentration on conclusions. Hypothetical propositions are distinct from categorical proposition and disjunctive propositions. Disjunctive syllogism is a proposition in which there are two terms, if either of the terms is untrue, the concluding statement will be latter one.

Why syllogisms are important? If a teacher wants her student to express arguments in writing then propositions is important. This Proposition is used to test the skill based on two qualities, how well one can judge the truth and other is how well one can judge the facts. If all the terms are factual then propositions are said to be valid and conclusion so derived is also true. Nowadays, one with poor sense of reasoning has to face rejection at many points. However, it does not mean that one cannot overcome such a weakness.

In most of the organizations, people with strong reasoning and analytical approach get higher preference. Moreover, in various educational institutes, students with good mental capability are preferred. This mental examination can help one in getting good mental approach with increased intellectual level. It is also a psychological approach to judge the decision making capability of a person. The technique is so popular that even police in many countries conduct such tests on numerous convicts.

What is faulty syllogism?

The validity of such tests is based on assessments of facts. Certain terms have vague conclusions, i.e. minor premises and major premises fail to get the interlinked relationship. There arises a condition where relevant information is not provided in the major premises hence, concluding the fact becomes impossible. Another common fault is negative major and minor terms which result in a poor relationship thereof. When one derives the affirmative conclusion from the two negative statements, it is also a form of faulty proposition.


Syllogism is a logical approach of deducing conclusions from two distinct but inter-related terms. After facing lot of criticism, this technique is now modified and is popularly being used in many organizations.

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